EU07 and EP07

 

EU07_7

 

First example from Pafawag (EU07-001, s/n 1/1964) at Chabówka rolling stock heritage park, April 13, 2004.

 

EU07_21

 

Over two years later things are not looking much better, but restoration seems to be under way: Chabówka, July 29, 2006.

 

EU07_127

 

EU07-001 in its better days; location and date unknown. Photo from my collection.

 

EU07_8

 

EU07-027 at Stalowa Wola Rozwadów station, May 4, 2004.

 

EU07_5

 

EU07-144 at Piotrków Trybunalski loco depot, October 29, 2001.

 

EU07_9

 

EU07-114 with train 220 to Wrocław near Jaworzyna Śląska, August 4, 2004.

 

EU07_6

 

EU07-408 near Warszawa Rembertów station, January 29, 2003…

 

EU07_2

 

…EP07-344, photographed on the same occasion…

 

EU07_3

 

… and the same example in Ełk, August 1, 2004.

 

EP07_1

 

EP07-522 near Warszawa Wawer station, August 8, 2002 (note rectangular headlights – then a novelty).

 

EU07_4

 

EP07-383 in Gdańsk, August 6, 2003 (as above).

 

EU07_sc1

 

EU07, early version from Pafawag; side drawing from the factory folder, issued probably in late 1960s.

 

EU07_sc2

 

EU07 from Pafawag, later variant; side drawing by M.Ćwikła (SK vol. 9/2002).

 

EU07_sc3

 

EU07, late version from HCP with some modifications; side drawing by M.Ćwikła (SK vol. 10/2002).

 

EU07_10

 

EP07-355, photographed near the Łódź Widzew station on April 10, 2005.

 

EU07_11

 

EU07-112 at the Krotoszyn station, April 13, 2005.

 

Several pictures taken at the Warszawa Wschodnia station can be seen here.

 

Leased EU07s, operated by Koleje Mazowieckie, can be seen here.

 

 

EU07_26

 

EP07-388, photographed near the Warszawa Zachodnia station, February 17, 2007.

 

EU07_16

 

EP07-332, photographed in Ełk on June 15, 2006...

 

EU07_17

 

...and EP07-345, photographed on the same occasion.

 

EU07_76

 

The same locomotive, photographed in Warsaw on October 14, 2008, in (then) new PKP InterCity blue livery. 

 

EU07_18

 

Two EU07s, photographed near the Warszawa Olszynka Grochowska depot on July 11, 2006: EU07-325...

 

EU07_19

 

... and EU07-153.

 

EU07_20

 

EU07-318 with a passenger train arriving in Leszno on July 26, 2006.

 

EU07_22

 

Two EU07s, photographed at the Kraków Płaszów station on September 9, 2006: EU07-531...

 

EU07-23

 

...and slightly battered EU07-321; traces of yellow paint on the front panel are still visible.

 

EU07_24

 

Two locomotives photographed near Rogów station on November 22, 2006: EU07-124...

 

EU07_25

 

...and EU07-495.

 

EU07_27

 

EU07-367 passes by EP07-388; Warszawa Zachodnia, February 17, 2007.

 

EU07_28

 

Early production EU07-010, photographed in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska on May 3, 2007.

 

EU07_29

 

EP07-211, photographed near the Warszawa Olszynka Grochowska depot on July 26, 2007.

 

EU07_32

 

EU07-494, Gdynia Grabówek depot, August 23, 2007.

 

EU07_38

 

EP07-375, photographed near the Warszawa Zachodnia station on October 24, 2007.

 

EU07_41

 

Modernized EP07-1005 (ex EU07-352), photographed at one of my favorite spots near the Warszawa Zachodnia station on October 26, 2007. Note missing multiple control sockets. More photos from this location can be seen here.

 

EU07_49

 

Two more modernized locomotives: EP07-1035...

 

EU07_50

 ...and EP07-1043, both photographed at the Wrocław Główny station on April 18, 2008.

 

EU07_51

 

EU07-496, photographed somewhere in Poland in June 1995...

 

EU07_52

 

...and the same machine photographed after a crash on August 17, 1995. Both photos from my collection.

 

EU07_59

 

In 2008, modernized EP07-1051 (ex EU07-054) was externally made up as BR class 83 in the 1960s livery; photo taken in Wolsztyn on May 3, 2008.

 

EU07_64

 

Another picture of this locomotive, taken at the Wrocław Główny station in June 2008 by John Bryant (thanks for permission!).

 

EU07_60

 

Two locomotives, photographed at the Poznań Główny station on May 15, 2008: EU07-417...

 

EU07_61

 

...and modernized EP07-1002 (ex EU07-147).

 

EU07_63

 

EU07-127, photographed at the Gliwice station on June 15, 2008.

 

EU07_68

 

EU07-096, photographed in Węgliniec on July 16, 2008.

 

EU07_69

 

Modernized EP07-1053, photographed on the same occasion.

 

EU07_71

 

EP07-1055, photographed in Korsze on September 9, 2008. Electrified line ends there and eastbound trains are taken over by SU45s or SU46s.

 

EU07_72

 

EP07-1052, Olsztyn Główny station, September 12, 2008.

 

EU07_73

 

EP07-1018, photographed on the same occasion.

 

EU07_74

 

Three modernized EP07s, photographed at the Olsztyn depot on the same day.

 

EU07_77

 

This EP07-389 was photographed at the Zduńska Wola Karsznice station on October 20, 2008; freighters are much more frequent visitors there.

 

EU07_78

 

EU07-013, Poznań Franowo, eight days later.

 

EU07_79

 

Two pictures, taken at the Jelenia Góra station on November 29, 2008: modernized EP07-1003 (ex EU07-486)…

 

EU07_80

 

…and ‘old’ EU07-223.

 

EU07_88

 

EP07-1022, photographed in Węgliniec on  March 20, 2009. PKP Przewozy Regionalne logo has been removed and small PKP InterCity logo can now be seen.

 

EU07_95

 

EU07-123 in new PKP Cargo livery, photographed at the Bielsko-Biała station on April 26, 2009.

 

EU07_96

 

Two pictures, taken at the Bohumin station, Czech Republic, on April 27, 2009. EU07-533 is ready to depart with a train to Warsaw (individual name ‘Hanka’ in the front wall is rather uncommon)…

 

EU07_97

 

…while EU07-446 is waiting for an assignment, accompanied by three Czech 163s.

 

EU07_98

 

EU07-490, photographed at the Rzepin station on May 15, 2009…

 

EU07_99

 

…and EP07-1001, first locomotive modernized to this standard, photographed on the same occasion. Here PKP locos take over passenger trains from Germany.

 

EU07_108

 

Modernized EP07-1056, Warszawa Zachodnia, May 28, 2009.

 

EU07_131

 

EP07-1030 with a train from Lublin approaches Warszawa Miedzeszyn station (a few hundred metres from my home); March 4, 2010.

 

EU07_115

 

EU07-342, PKP InterCity, approaches the Grodzisk Mazowiecki station; September 2, 2009.

 

EU07_116

 

EP07-541, photographed at the Warszawa Radość station on the same day.

 

EU07_117

 

Three locomotives, photographed at the Warszawa Włochy station on September 15, 2009, also represent various livery variants: EU07-466…

 

EU07_118

 

…EU07-491…

 

EU07_119

 

…and EP07-1057.

 

EU07_123

 

Three pictures, taken at the Kraków Płaszów station on November 25, 2009: EU07-208…

 

EU07_124

 

…EP07-233 (with an EN57 EMU in the background)…

 

EU07_125

 

…and EU07-005 (second oldest EU07 sill in service).

 

EU07_128

 

Modernized EP07-1010, photographed at the Wrocław Główny station on February 17, 2010.

 

EU07_136

 

EP07-1015 passing through Warszawa Falenica station – not far from where I live. June 9, 2010.

 

EU07_143

 

EU07-106 with a train to Lublin approaches the Otwock station on September 21, 2010.

 

EU07_144

 

EP07-1013 hauling idle EP07-1003; Wrocław Psie Pole station, October 4, 2010.

 

EU07_145

 

Winter delights: EP07-434, photographed near Warszawa Radość station on December 15, 2010.

 

EU07_146

 

Quite by chance, next in the service number sequence EU07-435, but photographed in totally different environment, on a flooded track near Gdańsk in July 2001. This is a charity postcard, issued to raise funds for flood victims.

 

EU07_159

 

EU07-091, photographed in Tomaszów Mazowiecki on May 11, 2011.

 

EU07_160

 

Another picture taken on the same day: EU07-196 passes through Wrocław Psie Pole station.

 

EU07_165

 

Following purchase of modern electric locomotives from Bombardier and Siemens, more and more EU07s are encountered with freight trains. This EU07-123 from the PKP Cargo fleet was photographed with a draft of cement cars at the Zduńska Wola Karsznice station on June 17, 2011.

 

EU07_172

 

The same location: EU07-065 with a freight train. September 7, 2011.

 

EU07_173

 

Two PKP InterCity locomotives, photographed at the Łódź Fabryczna station on September 21, 2011: EP07-517 (note multiple control sockets faired over)…

 

EU07_174

 

…and EU07-377, the latter just having arrived from Warsaw.

 

EU07_178

 

This EU07-210 was leased to Koleje Mazowieckie and then returned to PKP Cargo, in the original livery (minus operator’s logo); Zduńska Wola Karsznice, December 19, 2011.

 

EU07_179

 

One of the few EU07s used by private operators: EU07-80, PHU Lokomotiv, Długołęka, December 21, 2011.

 

EU07_180

 

EU07-244, PKP InterCity, leaves the Sędziszów station; January 8, 2012.

 

EU07_182

 

EU07-209, PKP Cargo (previously leased to Koleje Mazowieckie), photographed in Długołęka on April 27, 2012.

 

EU07_187

 

EP07-351, photographed in Koluszki on June 17, 2012.

 

EU07_188

 

EU07-144 with a draft of container cars, photographed in Zduńska Wola Karsznice on July 23, 2012.

 

EU07_198

 

The same location: EU07-1519 with a draft of container cars. September 12, 2012.

 

EU07_197

 

EU07-239, photographed in Korsze on September 1, 2012. Electrified line ends there.

 

EU07_199

 

Three locomotives photographed at the Bydgoszcz Główna station on March 9, 2013: EP07-312…

 

EU07_200

 

…EP07-434…

 

EU07_201

 

…and EP07-391.

 

EU07_214

 

EP07-1030, Skarżysko Kamienna station, May 29, 2013.

 

EU07_215

 

A few photos from my collection. EP07-350, Szczecin Port Centralny depot, February 10, 2000 (photo by Tomasz Grabowski).

 

EU07_216

 

Snow-covered EU07-177, location and date unknown.

 

EU07_218

 

EU07-418 with ET22-413 in the background, location and date unknown (photo by D.Szymczyk).

 

EU07_219

 

EU07-394, Gryfino, December 25, 2000 (photo by D.Szymczyk).

 

EU07_220

 

EU07-182, location and date unknown (photo by D.Szymczyk).

 

EU07_221

 

EU07-435, Gryfino, March 4, 2001 (photo by D.Szymczyk).

 

EU07_217

 

EU07-187, photographed while passing by the Ostrowite station, displays new Przewozy Regionalne livery; June 15, 2013.

 

EU07_222

 

Six locomotives photographed at the Kraków Płaszów station on June 20, 2013: EU07-173…

 

EU07_223

 

…EP07-412…

 

EU07_224

 

…EU07-052…

 

EU07_225

 

…EP07-1066…

 

EU07_226

 

…EU07-092…

 

EU07_227

 

…and EP07-135.

 

EU07_231

 

Two pictures taken at the Gdynia Główna station on September 23, 2013: EP07-442…

 

EU07_232

 

…and EP07-1025.

 

EU07_233

 

EU07-1509, PKP Cargo, photographed in Zduńska Wola Karsznice on December 11, 2013.

 

 

 Damaged EU07-471, date and location unknown (photo from my collection). Possibly this picture was taken after a crash in Grajewo in July 1998 – the locomotive was not rebuilt afterwards.

 

 

 

 

 

Efforts to design and build electric locomotives for passenger and express trains in Poland after WWII were not entirely successful. EP02, which in fact was a derivative of pre-war EL.100 of British origin, had poor running qualities and was never considered wholly suitable for large-scale production; only eight examples were built and their service was comparatively short. Next electric passenger locomotives were imported from Sweden, East Germany, Czechoslovakia and UK.

In the meantime, indigenous (although based on Soviet VL22M) ET21 freight locomotive went into production at Pafawag (pre-war Linke-Hofmann) in Wrocław in 1957. This machine was considered successful and certainly paved the way for more advanced designs. It was, however, decided to build a license locomotive rather than develop an entirely new one. The choice fell on British EU06, of which twenty examples had been ordered in 1961. From the very beginning it was stipulated that license agreement should follow immediately and until 1965 PKP should have received about 100 examples built in Wrocław under factory designation 4E. These plans turned out over-optimistic. First locomotive, with service number EU07-001, was rolled out in December 1964 and accepted for service tests in April 1965. Until the end of 1966 only four EU07s were accepted and sixteen followed in 1967. Large-scale production started the next year.

Despite new service designation, EU07 did not differ much from British-built EU06 and had similar performance and appearance. Differences concerned mainly those items of equipment that had already been manufactured in Poland and thus were not covered by license agreement (such as compressors or heating devices). Service designation implies that this machine was suitable both for passenger and freight trains, but from the very beginning was seldom used for freight service. In fact, due to its introduction, it was possible in 1970 to withdraw ET21s from passenger traffic, for which they were certainly not well suited.

Production of EU07 at Pafawag lasted until 1974 and totaled 240 examples, the last of which was accepted by PKP in January 1975. Four more were rebuilt from EP08s in 1976 and 1977. Further deliveries were halted, as freight locomotives were more urgently needed: this may seem hard to explain, but in fact electrification did not progress as fast as previously planned and main effort was concentrated on principal trunk routes, where heavy freight traffic dominated. As Pafawag was then the sole producer of electric locomotives in Poland, they had to shift to ET22, which in fact owed something to EU07 (e.g. electric motors were of the same type).

Alternative to electrification was sought in diesel locomotives and PKP acquired over 1800 heavy road diesels, mostly from the USSR (class ST44). However, due to drastic increase of fuel prices, this policy had to be revised and in 1981 it was decided to concentrate available resources on electrification – once again. As Pafawag was involved in the ET22 program, new passenger machines were to be built by HCP of Poznań. This large factory had not built electric locomotives before 1977, when ET41 made its appearance; this two-section heavy freighter had in fact been derived from EU07 and had the same electric engines. Original plans called for about 500 examples, but only 200 were built. Although HCP design bureau produced original designs of fast passenger locomotives, it soon became obvious that they had little chances to materialize, if any, especially after martial law introduction in Poland in December 1981, when import of certain items of equipment became impossible. It was therefore decided to revive the EU07 program, but on the basis of experience gained with the ET41. First example of the ‘new’ machine (factory designation 303E) was delivered in August 1983 – over eight years after the last EU07 from Pafawag. In PKP service, machines from HCP were given service numbers from EU07-301 onwards (last of the ‘old’ batch was EU07-244, rebuilt from EP08-003 and delivered in November 1977).

Machines from Poznań differed from earlier ones mainly internally. First of all, frame was redesigned in order to simplify manufacture, so new machines were longer by 320 mm and heavier by almost 3.5 tonnes. There were, of course, many differences concerning individual items of equipment. Wheelsets and engines were the same as in earlier examples. Externally, the easiest way to distinguish later machines from the earlier ones – apart from the service number – is the fact that EU07s from HCP had side walls made of riffled plates and larger pilots. Their production totaled 242 examples, the last of which – EU07-543 – was delivered in June 1992. Furthermore, three machines were rebuilt from damaged ET41s (EU07-537 from ET41-036B, EU07-544 from ET41-088A and EU07-545 from ET41-116A), so the grand total of this class is 489 machines: more than all other passenger electric locomotives in the PKP service combined.

In early 1970s a special freight version for sand railways was designed, intended to replace obsolescent 3Es (equivalent to PKP class ET21); it had different current collectors and no car heating equipment. This variant was not proceeded with.

EU07s proved quite reliable in service, but soon it was found out that electric engines were prone to failures as a result of high rotational speed. It was thus decided to change the main gear reduction ratio from 79:18 to 76:21. Rebuilt machines were designated EP07, service numbers being retained. First EP07s appeared in late 1996 and 84 machines were rebuilt until 2004, including seven from Pafawag. Some were fitted with LKb535 traction engines of the same rating, but with improved insulation. Initially it was intended to convert over 200 EU07s until 2005, but this program suffered considerable delays and new, more extensive modernization packages were proposed (see below). Until 2002, 57 machines were withdrawn due to accidents or physical wear.

Deliveries of EU07s covered over 27 years and, from statistical point of view, were moderate: about 18 examples per year. This cannot change the fact that they are the principal electric locomotives for passenger and express trains in Poland – and, despite deliveries of modern motive power, this will not change soon. When EU07-001 was rolled out from Pafawag for service tests in 1964, this machine could principally be considered modern; 27 years later, despite all modification, it certainly was not so. But all efforts to supply more advanced machines in fact failed. EP08 class (derived from EU07) numbered just fifteen machines; EP09, intended as a major step forward, was not an unequivocal success. EP23 was a failure, if not misunderstanding. EU11 and EU43 programs were terminated. Major improvement, albeit initially rather qualitative than quantitative, came for PKP InterCity only in 2009, with ES64s from Siemens.  However, if you travel through Poland on an electrified line, your train will still most probably be hauled by a EU07 or EP07.

According to rosters quoted at www.szopa.glogow.pl, in October 2005 PKP had 91 EP07s and 336 EU07s in active service. EU07-125, built by Pafawag in 1970 and withdrawn in March 1998, was sold to PTKiGK Zabrze and remains in use, currently with DB Schenker Rail Polska, with service number changed to 4E-004. This was the first locomotive of this type purchased by a private operator and for a number of years remained the sole one used for freight service. In 2008, Koleje Mazowieckie (KM), which operate local trains around Warsaw, leased six EP07s from PKP Cargo to haul new push-pull-type drafts supplied by Bombardier. Further five followed in early 2009. Following the deliver of eleven brand-new EU47s, completed in August 2011, all were returned before next September, retaining their white, yellow and green KM liveries (at least for the time being). Another private operator that has acquired these locomotives is PHU Lokomotiv, which has purchased eight examples from PKP InterCity since September 2011; according to some sources, further may follow in near future, as older EU07s are declared surplus following the acceptance of new locomotives in increasing numbers. In March 2013 four EU07s were sold by PKP InterCity to the Oleśnica repair works. Two of them (EU07-047 and EU07-206) after overhaul were sold to the WAM private company and the remaining two are still (September 2013) awaiting customers.

Modifications of the basic design concerned mainly various items of equipment (dead man’s handle, improved electric circuit elements); in some examples, rectangular headlights were fitted. In fact the need to modernize these locomotives became obvious in the 1990s. Initial plans included upgrading all existing EU07s to the EP07 standard, as well as solid-state startup systems for traction engines, improved control systems, static current converters and new compressors. Due to the lack of financing they were substantially delayed and cut down. In late 2006, PKP Przewozy Regionalne (at that time a member of the PKP group), who had taken over a number of EU07s and EP07s, finally launched a modernization program. Initial intentions were again quite ambitious, including even air-conditioned crew compartments – or so it appears – but eventually, due to modest financing, the package has included mainly new main gears with reduction ratio changed from 79:18 to 76:21, to reduce engine rotational speed (as in EP07), and removing multiple-control installation. Minor modernizations have concerned controls, crew seating and windscreen wipers; some locomotives have also been fitted with new, rectangular headlights and modified, single-arm current collectors. Lack of multiple-control sockets on the front wall is the most characteristic external feature of this modernization. New cream-yellow/red livery did not find much approval among railway fans (to put it mildly) and promptly earned ‘new’ locomotives the nickname ‘budyń’ (pudding); later typical PKP InterCity livery, with dominant blue, was standardized, this time without much discussion. Modernized EU07s are re-designated EP07 but, contrary to earlier practice, are assigned new service numbers from 1001 upwards. EP07-1001 (ex EU07-137) was rebuilt by the ZNTK (Railway Stock Repair Works) of Oleśnica and rolled out in June 2007. Until mid-2008 this program included 69 examples, of which two (EP07-1065, ex EU07-024 and EP07-1066, ex EU07-231) were modernized by Romanian RELOC company of Craiova. Further seven EU07 were found in such bad overall condition that they had to be written off, although had already been assigned new numbers (which were later used for the second time). Despite their relatively low numerical force, ‘new’ EP07s have already become quite common. More examples may follow in near future. In early 2000s a few EU07s were modified to operate with passenger trains between Wrocław and Prague – this included mainly fitting additional equipment required by Czech railway regulations.

In January 2012 PKP Cargo received the first EU07, modernized to the 303Ec standard by ZNLE Gliwice. Re-numbered EU07-1524 (ex EU07-535), this locomotive features completely redesigned control panel, air-conditioned crew compartment, new single-arm current collector and repositioned multiple control sockets, as well as numerous improvements of electric systems. Further examples will most probably follow.

In April 2012 Przewozy Regionalne, no longer a member of the PKP group, ordered moderniza­tion of five EU07s to the 303Eb standard, also by ZNLE Gliwice. Apart from new reduction gears with the same ratio as in EP07, modernized locomotives are fitted with new compressors and traction engine fans, redesigned crew compartment and control panel and new headlights. Multiple control sockets have been removed. First of these machines was received in October 2012 and they were given new service numbers, from 2001 onwards. In January 2013 their designation was changed to EP07P, which was justified by reduced axle load. In all, Przewozy Regionalne purchased ten surplus PKP InterCity EU07s and one EP07; the remaining six are still awaiting decision on their future fate.

Undoubtedly the most extensive modernization package saw light in 2011. Designated EU07A (‘A’ standing for asynchronous), factory type 303Ea, this variant features new traction engines of much higher rating, completely redesigned control panel, new brakes and many more detailed improvements. EU07A, despite being externally similar, is in fact a different design and shall be described under a separate entry.

EU07-001, first locomotive of this type from Pafawag, withdrawn from service in 1998 at the Dębica depot, has been preserved and currently is kept at the railway stock heritage park in Chabówka. Restoration was completed in June 2013.

 

 


Main technical data – EU07

 

No.

Parameter

Unit

Value

1.

Years of manufacture

-

1965 – 1974

1983 – 19922)

2.

Total built / used in Poland

-

240 + 41) + 2424) + 33) / 489

3.

Axle arrangement

-

Bo’Bo’

4.

Control

-

multiplied

5.

Design maximum speed

km/h

125

6.

Traction motors (number X type)

-

4 X EE541A

7.

Voltage

V

3000

8.

One-hour rating

kW/hp

2080 / 2825

9.

Continuous rating

kW/hp

2000 / 2720

10.

Electric current at one-hour rating

A

370

11.

Electric current at continuous rating

A

355

12.

Rotational speed at one-hour rating

rpm

920

13.

Rotational speed at continuous rating

rpm

940

14.

Engine suspension

-

Alsthom

15.

Reduction gear ratio

-

79:18

16.

Diameter of drivers

mm

1250

17.

Total weight

kg

80 000 / 83 4002)

18.

Axle load

T

20.00 / 20.852)

19.

Axle base

mm

11 600

20.

Overall length

mm

15 915 / 16 2352)

21.

Maximum width

mm

3 038

22.

Brake type

-

Westinghouse

 

1)      Rebuilt from EP08-002 to 005

2)      Second batch (HCP, type 303E) – based on ET41 

3)      Rebuilt from ET41-036B, ET41-088A and ET41-116A

4)    Second batch – some sources give 243 examples.

 

Main technical data – EP07

 

No.

Parameter

Unit

Value

1.

Years of manufacture

-

1995 –

(reconstruction of EU07)1)

2.

Total built / used in Poland

-

84/ 842)

3.

Axle arrangement

-

Bo’Bo’

4.

Control

-

multiplied

5.

Design maximum speed

km/h

125

6.

Traction motors (number X type)

-

4 X EE541b

or LKb5353)

7.

Voltage

V

3000

8.

One-hour rating

kW/hp

2080 / 2825

9.

Continuous rating

kW/hp

2000 / 2720

10.

Electric current at one-hour rating

A

370

11.

Electric current at continuous rating

A

355

12.

Rotational speed at one-hour rating

rpm

920

13.

Rotational speed at continuous rating

rpm

940

14.

Engine suspension

-

Alsthom

15.

Reduction gear ratio

-

76:21

16.

Diameter of drivers

mm

1250

17.

Total weight

kg

80 0004) / 83 400

18.

Axle load

T

20.004) / 20.85

19.

Axle base

mm

11 600

20.

Overall length

mm

15 9154) / 16 235

21.

Maximum width

mm

3 038

22.

Brake type

-

Westinghouse

 

1)      Service numbers retained

2)      Until 2004

3)      In two examples

4)      First seven examples, rebuilt from EU07s from the first batch (type 4E)

 

References and acknowledgments

 

-       Monographic articles by Paweł Terczyński in SK vol. 9/2002 and vol. 10/2002;

-       Article by Bogdan Waga in KMD vol. 1/2003;

-       AL, SK (various issues).