JŽ 152-006 (formerly MÁV 377,138), Budapest 478/1893, photographed at the Railway Museum in Lublana, Slovenia, on June 18, 2009.
MÁV 765 (Budapest 184/1886), later re-numbered 5221 and finally 377,041, photographed on May 11, 2008 by Balogh Zsolt (source: www.commons.wikimedia.org). This is the oldest preserved locomotive of this type and represents the ‘short’ variant.
Originally MÁV 5495 (Budapest 957/1906), later 377,313, was taken over by ČSD and became 310.433. In 1952 it went to industry and has been preserved in Bratislava. Photo taken on September 2, 2006 by Rainerhaufe (source: as above). This example features longer smokebox.
One of two 377s captured by Polish troops: 377,402 (Budapest 1295/1898) with the ‘Piłsudczyk’ armored train, probably early November 1918. Note makeshift device to direct smoke downwards and side boards for additional coal storage. Source: the monograph by Janusz Magnuski (see References). Later this locomotive became TKh103-2.
Schematic drawing of ČSD class 310.4; source: EZ vol. 1..
Standard armored class 377 of the Austro-Hungarian army. Drawing by Paul Malmassari (monograph – see References).
On November 1, 1918, militants of the Polish Military Organization (POW) captured in Kraków an Austro-Hungarian armored train, composed of two locomotives and a few wagons that had once belonged to trains PZ.III and PZ.VIII. It was divided into two separate units, P.P.1 ‘Piłsudczyk’ and P.P.2 ‘Śmiały’ that in effect became the first armored trains of the Polish army. Both were immediately dispatched to Lwów and took part in fighting against Ukrainian troops.
Captured locomotives belonged to the Magyar Államvasutak (MÁV) class 377 and were light 0-3-0 tank engines running on saturated steam and featuring outer frame and Stephenson valve gear. These successful, if not particularly advanced engines were to a certain extend patterned on Prussian class T3 (PKP class TKh1). Prototype was built at the Magyar Királyi Államvasutak Gépgyára (MÁVAG or Budapest) in 1885 and production started immediately. Although obsolescent, this locomotive was robust, reliable and easy to maintain; low axle load made it particularly useful on light tracks. Production for MÁV continued until 1901 and totaled 463 examples. Until 1905 MÁV also took over 25 engines of this type from absorbed private railways. In fact production for private operators and industry continued until 1918 (!) and most sources give total output at 534 examples. Service numbers from 377,489 upwards were assigned to various private locomotives impressed into MÁV, some after WWII. Of 488 examples impressed into MÁV before 1914, the majority came from MÁVAG (430), smaller numbers having been built by Weitzer of Arad (33), StEG (thirteen) and Krauss Linz (twelve). Individual examples differed in details. In particular, later batches featured longer smokebox.
Class 377 was one of the basic types used with Austro-Hungarian armored trains; according to the monograph by Paul Malmassari (see References), ten examples were assigned to this service. Moreover, one was taken over in 1917 by military railways kukHB; later it was handed over to Austrian state railways BBÖ and remained in use until 1937. After 1918 class 377 shared the fate of other Austro-Hungarian locomotives. Of above-mentioned 488 examples, MÁV kept 204; most were written off in 1930s, but many were sold to industry where they enjoyed much longer lifespan. Some even survived into 1980s and the last one in service, former 377,364 (Budapest 1155/1897), sold to Ózd steelworks in 1955, was withdrawn in 1983. Romanian state railways Căile Ferate Române (CFR) were the largest foreign recipient; they took over 122 examples, plus one from a private railway, which disappeared from the company’s rosters until 1948. Railways of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (SHS) received 95 examples, plus two more from private railways. The majority survived in use until 1933, when, following foundation of the Yugoslav State Railways (JDŽ) in 1929, they were classed 152. Most were withdrawn in late 1930s, a few served with the railways of Serbia and Croatia during the war. Czechoslovakian state railways ČSD took over 53 examples, later classed 310.4. They served mainly in Slovakia on local lines and 22 were withdrawn before 1939. In December 1949 ČSD still had sixteen 310.4s, which were used mainly for switching and as stationary boilers at depots; last were withdrawn in 1957. Thirteen almost identical locomotives, originally built for the Kaschau-Oderberger Bahn (Košicko-Bohuminská Dráha), incorporated into ČSD in 1924, were classed 310.5. Finally, Italian state railways FS received eleven examples, in 1922 classed 871; last were written off in 1932.
It may be noted that in both Czechoslovakia and post-war Hungary locomotives of this type saw use with armored trains, surviving in this role into WWII. This was mainly due to low axle load and ease of maintenance. Both Polish engines were, however, found too weak for typical armored trains which comprised five or six wagons. In February 1920 they were handed over to PKP. Class Ti3 (ex-Prussian G53) was later chosen as the standard locomotive type for Polish armored trains. Both examples survived until the introduction of new designation system in 1925, becoming TKh103-1 (ex 377,117, StEG 2238/1891) and TKh103-2 (ex 377,402, Budapest 1295/1898). According to www.pospichal.net/lokstatistik they were written off in 1932, but LP gives that this took place before 1931. Of thirteen locomotives of this type left in Poland after WWII, none saw service with PKP. One was handed over to ČSD in 1948 and the rest returned to Hungary, subsequently being sold to industry. As many as nineteen examples have been preserved in Hungary, Slovakia and Slovenia.
Main technical data*)
*) Note: data refer to early production variant; later versions differed slightly in length and weights.
1) Some examples were fitted with Westinghouse air brakes.
References and acknowledgments
- EZ vol. 1, LP, ITFR, ISRSL;
- www.pospichal.net/lokstatistik (website by Josef Pospichal);
- www.derela.republika.pl (website by Michał Derela);
- Armoured Trains. An Illustrated Encyclopaedia by Paul Malmassari (Seaforth, 2016);
- Pociąg pancerny ‘Śmiały’ w trzech wojnach (‘Śmiały’ armored train in three wars) by Janusz Magnuski (Pelta, 1996).